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Auto
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Joined: 12-04-09
May 24 2012 14:11
History Question: Use of the word 'presente'

Random question I've had knocking around my head for a while:

I've noticed that Anarchists use the term 'presente', often when referring to a comrade who has died. What exactly does the term mean and where does it come from? I assume it comes from the Spanish Civil War.

Apologies if this is answered elsewhere, I did a search but nothing came up.

Cheers, Auto

jura
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Joined: 25-07-08
May 24 2012 14:15

It means "present", as in "he/she is here". Like when soldiers in a military unit are counted, they shout "presente!".

I don't know if the radical usage of it originated in the Spanish Civil War.

Entdinglichung
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Joined: 2-07-08
May 24 2012 15:20

from http://www.soaw.org/presente/index.php?option=com_contenttask=sectionid=5Itemid=69

Quote:

Calling out the names of those killed by politically repressive regimes has a long tradition in Latin America. At the funeral of Pablo Neruda on September 25, 1973 in Chile, Hernán Loyala reports that mourners responded with "Presente" to the shouting out of Neruda's name, as well as that of Salvador Allende, the recently deposed (and killed) president. This was the first public act of protest against the 14-day-old regime of Augusto Pinochet.

Steven.
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Joined: 27-06-06
May 24 2012 17:46

I was wondering that just the other day, and also assumed it had its origins in Spain

Black Badger
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Joined: 21-03-07
May 24 2012 18:09

The militarist under- and over-tones make the expression particularly unsuited to the Spanish -- and any other -- anarchist tradition.

Battlescarred
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Joined: 27-02-06
May 24 2012 20:02

OH my gawd....

jef costello
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Joined: 9-02-06
May 25 2012 05:37

I was wondering about this too, thanks.

Auto
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Joined: 12-04-09
May 25 2012 07:49

Thanks for the explanations. I assumed it meant something along those lines but it's nice to have it clarified. Also glad to see I wasn't the only one wondering about it.

Cheers, Auto

Battlescarred
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Joined: 27-02-06
May 25 2012 11:36

I see absolutely nothing wrong with the expression. We really need to get over any moralistic posturing.

Black Badger
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Joined: 21-03-07
May 25 2012 14:36

Anti-militarism is a moral posture?

Serge Forward
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Joined: 14-01-04
May 25 2012 15:10

Rumbled! I'm now going to look for any posts where you may have casually used the term 'presente' then I'll rub your nose in any instances of your reactionary wordage and finally I'll moralise the fuck out of you in every conceivable way

Figure 3. Erythrocytes inhibit pneumococcal growth by reactive oxygen species-related mechanism.

S. pneumoniae cells (∼1×10 2 CFU, 10 µl) were added to erythrocytes (5×10 9 cells/ml, 190 µl) with or without 1 mM 2,2′-bipyridyl (iron chelator), 1 mM S-ethyl-ITU (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 100 µM EUK8 (synthetic catalytic free radical scavenger), or 150 µM MnTBAP (superoxide dismutase mimetic) for 2 hours at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Next, each mixture was serially diluted and plated on TS blood agar. Following incubation, CFU values were determined. *Significant difference ( P <0.005) between mean values, as determined with a Mann-Whitney U -test. The experiments were performed 3 times and data are shown as the mean of 6 wells from a representative experiment. S.D. values are represented by vertical lines.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077282.g003

Gram staining of blood cultures infected with invasive S. pneumoniae bacteria under clinical laboratory test conditions showed that some of the pneumococci became associated with human erythrocytes ( Fig. 4 A ). In order to further investigate the invasion of erythrocytes by S. pneumoniae , mixtures of the bacteria and erythrocytes were analyzed in detail using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. SEM analysis was performed with human blood samples incubated for 1 hour with unencapsulated S. pneumoniae strain R6 or its encapsulated parent strain D39 ( collapse back mini dress Black Kacey Devlin For Nice Cheap Online View Ebay Cheap Price Visit For Sale Finishline Sale Online 4hKsmMuV
), which revealed that the organisms adhered to ( Fig. 4 B a , c ) and invaded ( Fig. 4 B b , d ) erythrocytes in human blood, regardless of the capsule phenotype. In fluorescence analysis with confocal microscopy performed with human erythrocytes incubated for 1 hour with S. pneumoniae strain R6 or D39 Z-stack analysis clearly showed that both strains invaded erythrocytes ( Fig. 4 C ).

Figure 4. invasion of human erythrocytes.

A . Gram staining of cultures of blood obtained from a patient with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia. A blood sample was obtained from a splenectomized patient with pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis. We observed that some of the S. pneumoniae cells in the sample adhered to or invaded erythrocytes. B . SEM analysis of S. pneumoniae in blood. S. pneumoniae cells (arrows) were incubated in human whole blood for 30 minutes at 37°C. Strains R6 and D39 adhered to (a, c) and invaded (b, d) erythrocytes in human blood. C . Confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis of S. pneumoniae strains R6 (a, b) and D39 (c, d) incubated with human erythrocytes for 30 minutes at 37°C. (a, c) Erythrocytes were visualized using Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin. S. pneumoniae organisms were stained using SYTOX green. (b) Boxed areas from panel (a), along with x–z and y-z projections. (d) 3D analysis of image from panel (c) showing erythrocytes invaded by S. pneumoniae . D . Rate of S. pneumoniae invasion of erythrocytes. The numbers of invaded bacteria were determined as described in the Experimental Procedures section. *Significant difference ( P <0.005) between mean values, as determined with a Mann-Whitney U -test. The experiments were performed 3 times and data are shown as the mean of 6 wells from a representative experiment. S.D. values are represented by vertical lines. E . Histopathological examinations of infected mice lung tissues. Tissues were excised from sites of infection after 72 hours, then fixed, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin-eosin solution. (a) and (b) were obtained from individual mice. Arrows indicate association of S. pneumoniae with erythrocytes. (c) Numbers of bacteria associated with erythrocytes per field. Data shown represent the mean of 10 fields from a representative mouse. S.D. values are represented by vertical lines.

Figure 3

Similarity of 64 previously hypothetical proteins to EFICAz training enzymes . Number of previously hypothetical proteins predicted to be enzymes by EFICAz at different intervals of maximal sequence identity to enzymes included in the EFICAz version 5.0 training set. The true enzyme function of these 64 previously hypothetical proteins has been recently determined; therefore, we could assess the precision of our predictions. Dark green, light green and red bars represent four field EC number predictions with four, three or less than three correct EC fields, respectively. Yellow and orange bars represent three field EC number predictions with three or less than three correct EC fields, respectively. The median of the distribution (24.8%) is indicated by the broken line.

Table 2

Four-field EC number validation of EFICAz-predicted enzyme functions for 25 previously hypothetical proteins

The species names corresponding to the KEGG three letter codes are listed in the footnote of Table 1.

Gene name from the database of KEGG.

PMID: PubMed Unique Identifier, the journal citation accession number for the most relevant record in PubMed supporting the experimentally-derived annotation [65].

Experimentally-derived EC numbers.

EFICAz-predicted EC numbers.

Number of matching first n fields of the experimentally-derived and EFICAz-predicted EC numbers, with n = 1 to 4.

Table 3

Three-field EC number validation of enzyme functions predicted by EFICAz with four-field EC numbers for 12 previously hypothetical proteins

The species names corresponding to the KEGG three letter codes are listed in the footnote of Table 1.

Gene name from the database of KEGG.

PMID: PubMed Unique Identifier, the journal citation accession number for the most relevant record in PubMed supporting the experimentally-derived annotation [65].

Experimentally-derived EC numbers.

EFICAz-predicted EC numbers.

Number of matching first n fields of the experimentally-derived and EFICAz-predicted EC numbers, with n = 1 to 4.

Table 4

Three-field EC number validation of enzyme functions predicted by EFICAz with three-field EC numbers for 27 previously hypothetical proteins

The species names corresponding to the KEGG three letter codes are listed in the footnote of Table 1.

Gene name from the database of KEGG.

PMID: PubMed Unique Identifier, the journal citation accession number for the most relevant record in PubMed supporting the experimentally-derived annotation [65].

Experimentally-derived EC numbers.

EFICAz-predicted EC numbers.

Number of matching first n fields of the experimentally-derived and EFICAz-predicted EC numbers, with n = 1 to 4.

In agreement with the results of the benchmark described in Methods, there is no significant correlation between the precision of the EFICAz predictions for this set of hypothetical proteins and their sequence similarity to the enzymes included in the EFICAz training set (Figure 3 ). Also, the precision agrees reasonably well with the average precision derived from the benchmark test, especially considering the small size of the analyzed sample (64 proteins), and the fact that hypothetical proteins that are the subject of recent publications often belong to novel families. For example, three of our five wrong predictions correspond to enzymes that are the first studied member of a new family, with no significant sequence similarity to other functionally equivalent proteins: (i) the product of gene MJ0044 of Methanococcus jannaschii (Table 2 ), an isopentenyl-phosphate kinase that still has not been assigned an EC number by the Enzyme Commission [ 18 ], (ii) the product of gene MJ0936 of Methanococcus jannaschii (Table 2 ), a new cAMP phosphodiesterase, and (iii) the product of Ta1419 gene of Thermoplasma acidophilum , a novel bifunctional phosphoglucose/phosphomannose isomerase (Table 3 ). It is well known that Archaea have unique enzymes that are optimized for extreme environments [ DENIM Denim trousers ROY ROGERS PAROSH Free Shipping Shop For Cheap Ebay 1tIOrPqa
]; therefore, it is not surprising that these three misclassified proteins belong to archaeal organisms.

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